Educational Evaluation

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Educational evaluation is the evaluation process of characterizing and appraising some aspect/s of an educational procedure.

Common purposes in educational evaluation:

A. Educational institutions usually need evaluation data to demonstrate effectiveness to funders and other stakeholders, and to provide a measure of performance for marketing purposes.

B. Educational evaluation is also a professional activity that individual educators need to undertake if they plan to continuously review and enhance the learning they are endeavoring to facilitate.

Standards for Educational Evaluation

The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation published three sets of standards for educational evaluations.

A. The Personnel Evaluation Standards, published in 1988

B. The Program Evaluation Standards (2nd edition), published in 1994

C. The Student Evaluations Standards, published in 2003.

Each publication demonstrates and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

1.The Personnel Evaluation Standards

The propriety standards ask that evaluations be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of evaluatees and clients involved.

The utility standards are designed to guide evaluations so that they will be informative, timely, and influential.

The feasibility standards call for evaluation systems that are as easy to implement as possible, efficient in their use of time and resources, sufficiently funded, and viable from a number of other standpoints.

The accuracy standards require that the obtained information be technically accurate and that conclusions be linked logically to the data.

2. The Program Evaluation Standards

The utility standards are intended to make sure that an evaluation will serve the information needs of intended users.

The feasibility standards are planned to ensure that an evaluation will be realistic, prudent, diplomatic, and frugal.

The propriety standards are intended to make sure that an evaluation will be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of those involved in the evaluation, as well as those affected by its results.

The accuracy standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will disclose and convey technically adequate information about the features that determine worth or merit of the program being evaluated.

3. The Student Evaluation Standards

The Propriety standards assist to make sure that student evaluations are conducted lawfully, ethically, and with regard to the rights of students and other persons affected by student evaluation. For Educational Evaluations in US visit here

The Utility standards encourage the design and implementation of informative, timely, and useful student evaluations.

The Feasibility standards help ensure that student evaluations are practical; viable; cost-effective; and culturally, socially, and politically appropriate.

The Accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will give sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.

The Evolution Of Education Programs

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Today, high education programs are beginning to fade as more and more students opt for the flexibility, accessibility, and career-skills focus of online and continuing education.

Changing student profile

A signal of this can be seen in the changing student profile. Whereas in the past, the bulk of students who made-up higher education programs were in the 18 to 24-year-old range, today that demographic has broadened.

“The couple of times that we’ve done demographic study work, we determined that the average age of a student at a career college is the late-twenties; although there are students who are eighteen coming straight out of high school, and there are people in their fifties and sixties. It’s a wide range,” says Paul Kitchin, Executive Director of Career Colleges Ontario.

Career-building skills

A number of factors are driving the soaring admission rates at colleges and universities that offer online and continuing education programs, however one of the biggest draws is the focus on real-life job skills.

“It’s about giving students the full set of skills they need to enter into a career. You’re going to get the practical, hands-on skills you need to be able to function on the job,” says Kitchin.In today’s competitive job market, extra certificates, credentials, and skills are a big factor in what separates successful and unsuccessful job candidates. For Educational Evaluations in US visit here

Flexibility and accessibility

Another huge draw is flexibility and accessibility. Many continuing education programs allow students to attend school partially or entirely online. Because of this, people from all over Canada have the same opportunities for enrichment. As long as you have an internet connection you can be in school working towards a degree or certificate.

“If someone lives in rural Ontario or is a single parent, the benefits of e-learning are huge. So there’s some leveling of the playing field in terms of education if people can get their education online or part of it online,” says Dr. Lorraine Carter, President of the Canadian Association for University Continuing Education.

The future of online learning

What’s more is online courses have proven to be an effective learning environment, especially in comparison with large lecture-style courses.And with advancements in communication technology, online education may one day be able to replicate even the most technical of school work, including labs and workshops.

“There are big possibilities around simulations and 3D virtual environments. And I think that’s only going to continue to grow. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine’s utilization of very high end simulations and learning objects is evidence that you can do it” says Carter.

What Is Norm-Referenced And Criterion-Referenced Evaluation

Two alternative approaches to educational testing that must be thoroughly understood are norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing. Although there are similarities between these two approaches to testing, there are also fundamental differences between norm and criterion referenced testing.There have been disputations about the relative virtues of norm and criterion-referenced measurements for a long time. However, a fundamental fact is recognised by most of concerned people that norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing are complementary approaches. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

(i) Criterion-Referenced Evaluation:

When the evaluation is concerned with the performance of the individual in terms of what he can do or the behaviour he can demonstrate, is termed as criterion- referenced evaluation. In this evaluation there is a reference to a criterion.But there is no reference to the performance of other individuals in the group. In it we refer an individual’s performance to a predetermined criterion which is well defined.

Examples:

(i) Raman got 93 marks in a test of Mathematics.

(ii) A typist types 60 words per minute.

(iii) Amit’s score in a reading test is 70.

A simple working definition of Criterion-Referenced Evaluation :

A criterion-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to a defined achievement domain.In the above examples there is no reference to the performance of other members of the group. Thus criterion-referenced evaluation determines an individual’s status with reference to well defined criterion behaviour.

It is an attempt to interpret test results in terms of clearly defined learning outcomes which serve as referents (criteria). Success of criterion-reference test lies in the delineation of all defined levels of achievement which are usually specified in terms of behaviourally stated instructional objectives.

The purpose of criterion-referenced evaluation/test is to assess the objectives. It is the objective based test. The objectives are assessed, in terms of behavioural changes among the students.Such type of test assesses the ability of the learner in relation to the criterion behaviour. Glasar (1963) first used this term, ‘Criterion-reference test’ to describe the learner’s achievement on a performance continuum.Hively and Millman (1974) suggested a new term, ‘domain-referenced test’ and to them the word ‘domain’ has a wider connotation. A criterion referenced test can measure one or more assessment domain.

(ii) Norm Referenced Evaluation:

Norm-referenced evaluation is the traditional class-based assignment of numerals to the attribute being measured. It means that the measurement act relates to some norm, group or a typical performance.It is an attempt to interpret the test results in terms of the performance of a certain group. This group is a norm group because it serves as a referent of norm for making judgements.

Test scores are neither interpreted in terms of an individual (self-referenced) nor in terms of a standard of performance or a pre-determined acceptable level of achievement called the criterion behaviour (criterion-referenced). The measurement is made in terms of a class or any other norm group.Almost all our classroom tests, public examinations and standardised tests are norm-referenced as they are interpreted in terms of a particular class and judgements are formed with reference to the class. Educational Evaluations in US visit here

Examples:

(i) Raman stood first in Mathematics test in his class.

(ii) The typist who types 60 words per minute stands above 90 percent of the typists who appeared the interview.

(iii) Amit surpasses 65% of students of his class in reading test.

A simple working definition Norm Referenced Evaluation :

A norm-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to the performance of other individuals on that test.In the above examples, the person’s performance is compared to others of their group and the relative standing position of the person in his/her group is mentioned. We compare an individual’s performance with similar information about the performance of others.

That is why selection decisions always depend on norm- referenced judgements. A major requirement of norm-referenced judgements is that individuals being measured and individuals forming the group or norm, are alike. In norm-referenced tests very easy and very difficult items are discarded and items of medium difficulty are preferred because our aim is to study relative achievement.