What Is Norm-Referenced And Criterion-Referenced Evaluation

Two alternative approaches to educational testing that must be thoroughly understood are norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing. Although there are similarities between these two approaches to testing, there are also fundamental differences between norm and criterion referenced testing.There have been disputations about the relative virtues of norm and criterion-referenced measurements for a long time. However, a fundamental fact is recognised by most of concerned people that norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing are complementary approaches. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

(i) Criterion-Referenced Evaluation:

When the evaluation is concerned with the performance of the individual in terms of what he can do or the behaviour he can demonstrate, is termed as criterion- referenced evaluation. In this evaluation there is a reference to a criterion.But there is no reference to the performance of other individuals in the group. In it we refer an individual’s performance to a predetermined criterion which is well defined.

Examples:

(i) Raman got 93 marks in a test of Mathematics.

(ii) A typist types 60 words per minute.

(iii) Amit’s score in a reading test is 70.

A simple working definition of Criterion-Referenced Evaluation :

A criterion-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to a defined achievement domain.In the above examples there is no reference to the performance of other members of the group. Thus criterion-referenced evaluation determines an individual’s status with reference to well defined criterion behaviour.

It is an attempt to interpret test results in terms of clearly defined learning outcomes which serve as referents (criteria). Success of criterion-reference test lies in the delineation of all defined levels of achievement which are usually specified in terms of behaviourally stated instructional objectives.

The purpose of criterion-referenced evaluation/test is to assess the objectives. It is the objective based test. The objectives are assessed, in terms of behavioural changes among the students.Such type of test assesses the ability of the learner in relation to the criterion behaviour. Glasar (1963) first used this term, ‘Criterion-reference test’ to describe the learner’s achievement on a performance continuum.Hively and Millman (1974) suggested a new term, ‘domain-referenced test’ and to them the word ‘domain’ has a wider connotation. A criterion referenced test can measure one or more assessment domain.

(ii) Norm Referenced Evaluation:

Norm-referenced evaluation is the traditional class-based assignment of numerals to the attribute being measured. It means that the measurement act relates to some norm, group or a typical performance.It is an attempt to interpret the test results in terms of the performance of a certain group. This group is a norm group because it serves as a referent of norm for making judgements.

Test scores are neither interpreted in terms of an individual (self-referenced) nor in terms of a standard of performance or a pre-determined acceptable level of achievement called the criterion behaviour (criterion-referenced). The measurement is made in terms of a class or any other norm group.Almost all our classroom tests, public examinations and standardised tests are norm-referenced as they are interpreted in terms of a particular class and judgements are formed with reference to the class. Educational Evaluations in US visit here

Examples:

(i) Raman stood first in Mathematics test in his class.

(ii) The typist who types 60 words per minute stands above 90 percent of the typists who appeared the interview.

(iii) Amit surpasses 65% of students of his class in reading test.

A simple working definition Norm Referenced Evaluation :

A norm-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to the performance of other individuals on that test.In the above examples, the person’s performance is compared to others of their group and the relative standing position of the person in his/her group is mentioned. We compare an individual’s performance with similar information about the performance of others.

That is why selection decisions always depend on norm- referenced judgements. A major requirement of norm-referenced judgements is that individuals being measured and individuals forming the group or norm, are alike. In norm-referenced tests very easy and very difficult items are discarded and items of medium difficulty are preferred because our aim is to study relative achievement.

Maruti Suzuki Ignis Engine & Performance

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Overview

The Maruti Suzuki Ignis is a revolutionary car by Maruti Standards trying to bring a fresh design philosophy in the bare-bones hatchback segment in India. Aimed at the millennials, the Ignis was first showcased as the Suzuki iM-4 concept at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show and later unveiled at the 2015 Tokyo Motor Show.The Ignis competes against the entry-level B-segment hatches to start with and which include the Ford Figo, Tata Bolt, Hyundai Grand i10 and the Mahindra KUV100. The top trims are expensive and you can opt for compact sedans like the Dzire, Amaze or the Xcent which offer you much more space and similar equipment. For information on contact details of Maruthi car dealers in Bangalore

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Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Look

The biggest USP of the Maruti Ignis is its distinct styling that immediately catches attention on the road. The crossover silhouette makes it a tall boy while the modern design language separates its identity from the regular lot of Marutis. The front profile is clean yet attractive with the wide grille extending towards the headlamps. The LED DRLs are wrapped around the projector headlamps that illuminate the road very well, there are no halogen lights. The bumper looks sporty integrating the fog lamps in chrome housing.

The side profile is dominated by the pronounced wheel arches with cladding and contrasting black alloys. Furthermore, the straight bonnet along with a high roofline and flat rear profile makes it look like a pseudo SUV. The C-Pillar gets a very distinct kink with stylish indents that might remind you of the Adidas logo, it looks sporty. Now the rear profile of the Ignis has got a “love it or hate it” design. Though looks are subjective but we like the classic touches of the squared out tail lights and the heavily cladded rear bumper. The Ignis also comes with dual tone colours like the Vitara Brezza. Also, you can customise the roof with different wraps.

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Comfort

The interior layout is also in keeping with the exterior design. Maruti has cleverly used black and off-white interiors to enhance the sense of space in the cabin. That said, the lower portion of the dash and the door pads are prone to getting soiled too easily and it’ll be quite a task to keep these clean. The plastic quality too in these areas feels like its from the budget end of the parts bin.

The Ignis AMT is available in the Delta and Zeta variants only. The latter is what you see here and it loses out on goodies such as LED headlamps, DRLs, a touchscreen infotainment system, climate control and the cool toggle switches on the centre console that you get in the top-end Alpha variant. I also have a gripe with the music system in the Zeta variant. The sound output is average; the speakers seem like they are from a car in the ’90s. An aftermarket system, hence, is highly recommended.

Cabin space, as Rahul rightly pointed, is adequate to seat four adults only, so let the ‘based on the Baleno platform’ sales pitch not fool you into believing you’ll have space equal to that car. What you do get, however is generous knee and head room at the rear. The front seats are pretty comfortable and the generous bolstering offers great support, which I think is great for a reason that I’ll come to later.

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Performance

Driving the car will leave you more than impressed. Maruti-Suzuki has gone the tried and tested way with a choice of a 1.2-litre Dualjet petrol and 1.3-litre DDiS diesel motors on offer. These engines have served a number of Maruti cars for years now and have proven their reliability, efficiency and performance.

What’s more is that AMT options are available on both engines. The petrol engine uses variable valve timing, making 82bhp and 113Nm of torque. Characteristically, this engine is peaky in nature and starts to sing post 4,000rpm where progress is rapid with an affable Suzuki engine note. At idle, this engine is so silent and refined you’d have to put in some effort to hear it run. The refinement remains on the move as there were no vibrations to speak of even as speeds built up. We only drove the manual variant and it shifts positively with solid clicks from gear to gear.

The diesel engine has been well known for its frugality and adequate power delivery. In the Ignis, this engine develops 75bhp and 190Nm, compensating the deficit in horsepower over the petrol variant. The diesel definitely felt faster and more responsive at lower revs. Turbo-lag is controlled and once over 2,000rpm, it keeps pulling effortlessly in each gear. Maruti claims to have tweaked the AMT transmission to shift quicker and it showed through as up-shifts were more timely and accurate to throttle inputs than the AMT-equipped Dzire diesel.

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Rideing

The suspension in the Ignis is set up to offer a firm ride. This causes you to feel bumps and potholes at low speeds; however, ride quality does improve as speeds rise. That said, driving over sharp potholes causes the suspension to protest with a loud thud which is quite disconcerting.

After driving over a fairly bad stretch of tarmac, I was left wondering why Maruti chose such a firm set-up and the answer to that was revealed as soon as I encountered a set of corners. The Ignis is quite enjoyable around a bend; however, there is a hint of body roll that you need to get past. The front end has ample of grip to pull the car into a corner and there’s only a hint of understeer when you are at the limit.

Turn in is quick and precise for the car’s dimensions and mid corner bumps do not unsettle the car. The manual mode also makes it involving to drive with the rallycar-like shift pattern further enhancing the experience.What robs the Ignis petrol AMT of earning the tag of a driver’s car though is the disconnected steering. While it’s light and easy in the city, it does not weigh up as much as you’d want with increase in speed. Better feedback in corners would have certainly upped the fun quotient that this car offers otherwise .

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Safety

It is one aspect where Maruti has truly excelled. Maruti Ignis specifications include dual front airbags, seatbelts with pre-tensioner and force limiter (PTFL), and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) with Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD) as standard fitments. In addition, ISOFIX Anchorage – a child seat restraint system – is also offered as a standard feature with the entire Ignis variant lineup.

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Price in Hyderabad

Maruti Suzuki Ignis Ex-Showroom Price in Hyderabad ranges from 4,61,744/- (Ignis 1.2 Sigma MT) to 7,60,077/- (Ignis 1.3 Alpha MT). Get best offers for Maruti Suzuki Ignis from Maruti Suzuki Dealers in Hyderabad. Check for Ignis price in Hyderabad at Carzprice

Maruthi Suzuki Ignis Bottomline

Yes, the Ignis is a dressed up hatch, and it has shortcomings. Its styling is head-turning but polarising, and it looks a bit awkward when viewed from the rear. Its interiors, although funky, could do with a bit more finesse. However, the Ignis is very well equipped and spacious. The way it rides and drives makes it feel sophisticated and friendly to use too. The option of well-engineered automatic transmissions widens the Ignis’ repertoire further. The Ignis may seem pricey, but bear in mind it packs ABS, EBD, airbags and crash safety measures engineered into its chassis. All in all, the Ignis packs attitude and appeal, outside and inside, to drive and own, and is properly sensible too. The Ignis is a hatchback, and a statement too.

Benefits and Security Of Cloud Computing

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But there’s another, more precise meaning of cloud computing: the virtualization and central management of data center resources as software-defined pools. This technical definition of cloud computing describes how public cloud service providers run their operations. The key advantage is agility: the ability to apply abstracted compute, storage, and network resources to workloads as needed and tap into an abundance of pre-built services.

From a customer perspective, the public cloud offers a way to gain new capabilities on demand without investing in new hardware or software. Instead, customers pay their cloud provider a subscription fee or pay for only the resources they use. Simply by filling in web forms, users can set up accounts and spin up virtual machines or provision new applications. More users or cloud computing resources can be added on the fly—the latter in real time as workloads demand those resources thanks to a feature known as auto-scaling.

Benefits of cloud computing

The cloud’s main appeal is to reduce the time to market of applications that need to scale dynamically. Increasingly, however, developers are drawn to the cloud by the abundance of advanced new services that can be incorporated into applications, from machine learning to internet-of-things connectivity.Although businesses sometimes migrate legacy applications to the cloud to reduce data center resource requirements, the real benefits accrue to new applications that take advantage of cloud services and “cloud native” attributes. The latter include microservices architecture, Linux containers to enhance application portability, and container management solutions such as Kubernetes that orchestrate container-based services. Cloud-native approaches and solutions can be part of either public or private clouds and help enable highly efficient devops-style workflows.

Cloud computing security

Objections to the public cloud generally begin with cloud security, although the major public clouds have proven themselves much less susceptible to attack than the average enterprise data center. Of greater concern is the integration of security policy and identity management between customers and public cloud providers. In addition, government regulation may forbid customers from allowing sensitive data off premises. Other concerns include the risk of outages and the long-term operational costs of public cloud services.

H1B Visa Refusal on Rise under Administrative Processing by US Immigration

There has been an increase in the number of ‘administrative processing’ cases under the 221G section of the US Immigration and Nationality Act, restricting re-issuance of H1B Visa to those who hold jobs in the United States, according to some sources. Reportedly, a number of Indians in information technology, who have been holding H1B visas and working in USA for some years, got stuck in India on their recent visit as their applications to the US consulates in India were placed under administrative processing for an additional background check and security clearance. Check for H1B Visa Evaluation in UT Evaluators

Administrative Processing is not outright refusal of one’s H1B visa application. It is temporary refusal, but it may be frustrating. US Visa consulting experts opine that administrative processing is not an uncommon incidence. The primary objective of issuing temporary refusals to some H1B visa applicants or holders is to seek additional information or documents from them for closer scrutiny.

According to off-site employment and immigration experts, administrative processing under the 221G section of the US Immigration and Nationality Act affects only 2% of H1B visa holders or new applicants. However, this incidence has increasingly been reported over the past few months.

If you are unlucky to face such refusal of your H1B visa application or renewal, you may be required to wait several weeks for the final outcome. The waiting period may be stretched for a few months or years in the worst cases of administrative processing. Even a previously approved H1B visa application may be revoked in this case.

The documents of those placed under the 221G section of the US Immigration and Nationality Act are forwarded to such agencies as FBI, CIA, DEA, Interpol, the US Department of Commerce, and the US Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control for a thorough background check. H1B Visa Process Check here

The documents that H1B visa holders and new applicants are required to provide in case of administrative processing include but not limited to the following:

.Job offer letter or employment agreement from the employer

.Duly signed letter from the client validating the beneficiary’s assignment

.Detailed project description mostly for in-house projects

.Contract between the petitioner and the client or mid-vendor

.Details of services that the beneficiary is required to perform, work sites and dates

.Valid evidence of the beneficiary’s previous work experience and educational qualifications

.Financial documents including both the beneficiary and the petitioner’s tax returns and pay statements

If you are an H1B visa holder and planning to travel to outside of USA especially when the visa is awaiting renewal in the near future, make sure to carry all the relevant documents required for hassle-free visa stamping to reenter the US.

Benefits & Features Of Cloud Based Phone System

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Most organizations have for the longest time relied on traditional phone systems which are time-consuming an expensive, but since the introduction of cloud based business phone system, all of this has changed. A cloud system is one that allows you to upload all your information and details online such that you can easily access it online.

Features of a Great Cloud Phone System

Auto Attendant

A lot of organizations that receive a lot of calls have embraced auto phone attendants. This is an important business phone system especially if you do not have a dedicated person who answers phone calls. The auto attendant receives calls and provides the caller with the different options on how to be assisted plus allowing call transfers.

Auto Call Forwarding

Instead of having to do this manually, the cloud based business phone system automatically transfer calls to other devices till the call is answered. This makes it easy to serve clients and ensure that you maximize on the number of calls that you receive.

Flexibility

This saves time and makes multitasking so much easier. One can easily upload call details on the cloud which makes it accessible on the internet via a mobile device. This allows one to be mobile instead of being stuck at a desk all the time. Benefits of Cloud Hosting

Simplicity

There is no complicated set up required for cloud systems nor does it take up space as everything is stored on an online server.

Increased Efficiency

Integrating your business phone system enhances connectivity such that employees can communicate easily and effectively. It is easy to get access to different people whether they are in the office or not which greatly improves their ability to get work done more effectively.

Better Customer Service

Cloud phone systems allows for virtual receptionists and auto attendants which provides a platform for calls to be redirected where they can be attended to. This is done automatically which allows the organization to ensure that their customers are well attended to.

Ensures Continuity

As the systems are uploaded online, there are no external factors that could affect communications. This ensures that the business phone system is always online throughout which means that customers are always attended to, and communications are well done.

Cloud based business phone system is affordable, easy and as efficient. This allows you to always be connected and to ensure that you can always communicate within your organization and with your clients and customers. The benefits will lead to a lot of production and increased communication which is essential in any business. Cebod Telecom provides cloud-based telephony solutions for small to mid-sized enterprises, and larger companies delivering high- quality voice, premium features and unified communications. Cebod Telecom offers a state-of-the-art Pay-Per-Line business phone service model. This pricing model empowers businesses to pay per line as opposed to pay-per-user in the company.

Jaguar XE Feature, Specifications & Test Drive

Jaguar XE Overview

Jaguar XE is a premium compact sports sedan from the stable of Jaguar that comes with an elegant but powerful look. It has a sturdy build and is equally at ease in city roads as well as in uneven off track drive. The Jaguar XE images that the company released during Auto Expo 2016 shows an amazing designed car with commanding presence and style. It falls in the above 4-meter category and has remarkable features that give it an edge over its rivals in the market that are within this price bracket. Jaguar XE is available in two different trims; one of them is called the Jaguar XE and the other is called Jaguar XE 2.0L Petrol Pure2.0L Petrol Portfolio. This well-built sedan has a big 2835mm of wheelbase that allows it to seat around 4 passengers comfortably. The design of this SUV looks masculine and the comfort level of this car is on par with other such vehicles in this price category. Jaguar XE price range in India is between 35,83,561/- to 44,69,387/, check for detail pricing of Jaguar XE in Carzprice

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Jaguar XE Design

The Jaguar XE, in the released publicity material and spy shots, looks exactly like the larger XF and the flagship XJ. This is a common practice among all the manufacturers partly due to economies of scale and partly due to the fact that it is easy for them to adapt a successful design across all their models to retain familiarity of product.

The Jaguar XE will get a smaller version of the XF’s massive chrome mesh grille complete with the leaping cat. Standard features are expected to be projector headlights, LED daytime lights and projector fog lamps. We even expect that the bumper will remain the same but with a higher ground clearance.

The side profile is also similar to that of the XF in terms of roof line, flared wheels arches and the rake angle of the roof line both in the front and back. However, while the boot will have similar design elements as the XF and XJ-like tail lamp cluster and chrome strips, it appears to be far smaller (in relation to the larger cars). The rear bumper is expected to be a little sportier and will be complemented by dual exhausts.

Jaguar XE Space

The 2017 Jaguar XE’s cabin features an attractive, uncluttered dashboard with clean lines, but it lacks the sort of visual flair that made the original Jag XF and current XJ so special. Its quality also leaves a lot to be desired. Compared to what’s in its German luxury sedan competitors, the door trim looks and feels a bit flimsy, the trim that wraps around the dash is unremarkable, and the dash top itself is shiny and a bit coarse. Our test car also had more squeaks and rattles than usual, and in general, the XE’s cabin feels as if it belongs to a nice midsize family sedan rather than an entry-level luxury one.

Admittedly, opting for a non-black color scheme improves things as does opting for the range-topping R-Sport model that covers the dash in stitched simulated leather. It makes a difference. So too does the 10.2-inch InControl Pro touchscreen included in the Technology Pack. It has impressively quick processing speed, responds well to inputs, and its especially wide size makes it look modern and aids functionality. Some of its audio controls are a little tricky to figure out, but in general, the system works well. The same could be said of the base InControl touchscreen, but it’s smaller, slower to respond and has less advanced graphics.

In keeping with the segment’s sporty character, the 2017 XE feels snug and intimate from the driver seat. Controls fall readily at hand and the supportive driver seat should adjust enough to accommodate taller drivers. Unfortunately, such ample adjustment up front does take its toll on the backseat. The XE’s Audi, BMW and Mercedes competitors all have more spacious rear accommodations. And although the 15.9-cubic-foot trunk would seem to be among the segment-best on paper, in practice it’s a bit narrow and those of competitors are likely more useful.

Jaguar XE Engine

Now that Jaguar has released information on U.S. XE models, we now know what engines will be available in the U.S. market. The XE 25t comes with a turbocharged, 2.0-liter, four-cylinder – already seen in other Jaguar Land Rover vehicles — that puts out 240 horsepower 251 pound-feet of torque. For those diesel fans, the XE 20d delivers with a 180 horsepower, 2.0-liter diesel engine that also pushes 318 pound-feet of torque. The range topping model – the XE 35t – comes with a 3.0-liter, supercharged, V-6 that puts out a respectable 340 horsepower and 332 pound-feet of torque. With that kind of performance, zero to 60 mph takes just 5.1 seconds and top speed is limited 120 mph.

All three engines are mated to a ZF eight-speed automatic transmission, but the XE35t AWD is mated to the beefier 8HP70 transmission, while the RWD variant of the XE 35t, the XE20d and the XE 25t are mated to the 8HP45 transmission.

We’ve all known that AWD was coming to the new XE, but now we have confirmation of what XE models will be available with all-wheel drive. It won’t even be an option on the base XE 25t, but it will be available on the XE 20d and the V-6 powered XE 35t. Like the new XF and F-Pace, the AWD system uses a multi-plate wet clutch transfer case to transfer power to the front propshaft. When needed, the system can switch from full, RWD to AWD in just 165 milliseconds. This on-demand system allows for the steering to remain uncorrupted during normal driving maneuvers.

You may have noticed that there is no V-8 engine option, but give it time. Jaguar won’t let BMW, Audi and Mercedes have all the fun in the compact super-sedan range. Expect the same 5.0-liter supercharged V-8 from the other Jaguar models to find its way into a Jaguar XE R model in the next few years

Jaguar XE Driving

The 2017 Jaguar XE could easily win you over once you turn its rotary transmission selector to Drive. It’s a car engineered for the driver who wants to feel the road through the steering wheel and the seat of the pants. While many cars, including the vaunted BMW 3 Series, have moved toward being more comfortable and isolating, the Jag XE doubles down on driving dynamics. The steering is exceptional, delivering consistent weighting and providing an impressive amount of feedback. You can feel what the car is doing.

Jaguar also knows how to tune a suspension, managing to maintain control around corners and feel perpetually composed yet still deliver a well-damped ride that soaks up bumps and never punishes you for its athleticism. This perception is even better when you choose the Advanced Dynamics Pack. Truthfully, you won’t notice a big difference between its standard and Dynamic settings, but the adaptive suspension’s ability to further improve upon ride comfort and handling is well worth the extra cost. Really, the XE could go up against the Cadillac ATS as the most engaging luxury sport sedan to drive right now. For information on contact details of Jaguar car dealers in Hyderabad

Of course, the engine you select makes a difference. At this point we’ve only sampled the 35t’s supercharged V6. Like Jag’s supercharged V8s, the XE’s 340-hp engine upgrade delivers silky smooth, effortless power that is pleasantly different in character compared with those offered by competitors. The fact that it gets the same EPA-estimated fuel economy as the base 2.0-liter turbocharged four-cylinder would certainly make us think long and hard about paying extra for the 35t. Of course, the presence of a diesel engine certainly makes the 20d the engine to get for those who prioritize fuel economy. If there is one disappointment from a powertrain perspective, it’s the unrefined automatic stop-start system that draws too much attention to itself.

Jaguar XE Safety

Standard safety features on the 2017 XE include stability and traction control, front-seat side and side curtain airbags, and hazard lights that automatically activate under heavy braking. A rearview camera is standard on the Premium trim level and above, while the R-Sport further comes with drowsy driver monitoring, blind-spot monitoring, rear cross-traffic alert, front and rear parking sensors, lane departure warning and intervention, forward collision warning, and forward collision mitigation with automatic emergency braking.

The R-Sport trim’s standard front and rear parking sensors and blind-spot monitoring with rear cross-traffic alert can be added to the Premium or Prestige trim via a Vision package (which also adds the adaptive xenon headlights with automatic high beams). As noted above, there’s also a Driver Assistance package (R-Sport) with additional safety technologies.

Every XE comes with InControl Protect (including SOS emergency calling, Jaguar roadside assistance and stolen vehicle location) and InControl Remote (a smartphone app with vehicle status reports, remote locking and unlocking, and other remote features).

Jaguar XE Price

Jaguar Xe Ex-Showroom Price in India ranges from 35,83,561/- (XE Pure) to 44,69,387/- (XE Portfolio Diesel). Get best offers for Jaguar Xe from Jaguar Dealers in India

Jaguar XE Verdict

Jaguar is the last one to introduce an entry-level sedan amongst its peers but it has used its time very well. The XE is an excellent package combining practicality, sportiness and comfort. The engine combined with the gearbox and driving dynamics will ensure that the enthusiast in you is satisfied whereas the comfort level will ensure that the other passengers are comfortable too. It has truly shaken up the segment with the only fly in the ointment being the high price. It is priced at a quite a premium over the Mercedes C200 but we would say it is well worth the premium. The British brand has indeed succeeded in making the baby Jag the best driver’s sedan in its segment.

Maruti Suzuki Swift Engine & Test Drive

Maruti Suzuki Swift Overview

The Maruti Suzuki Swift is India’s most popular hatchback and has ruled the streets for a good 10 years now, unchallenged mostly. There is definitely something about the Swift which makes it such a hot seller, we have it our long term garage and can’t deny the smile it plants on our face everything we show it a pair of twisties. It’s not a very practical car due to the lack of rear seat room and a small boot but for those who love driving, the Swift is among the few options. The company updated its popular model with a minor facelift not so long back and we gauge the minor changes. Maruti Suzuki Swift  price range in India is between 5,15,343/- to 8,29,262/-  check for detail pricing of Maruti Suzuki Swift in Carzprice

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Maruti Suzuki Swift Design

If we talk about styling definitely the new generation Swift has changed a lot. It looks more aggressive, the car still carries over the same sporty design. The hatchback retains the same overall silhouette. What has changed though is the way it looks. The new Swift hatchback looks even sportier with the redesigned front headlamps which now get projector units (on the top variant), a completely new single piece grille and a huge fog lamp enclosure towards the lower lip. Like the front profile the side profile of the hatchback gets newly designed alloy wheels. Both the A and B pillars are finished in Black which has actually left a floating roof like illusion similar to the ones found in the new Vitara Brezza SUV. The rear profile of the new Swift looks little slimmer and also gets broader LED taillamps. It also gets a neat looking spoiler interated into the roof which completes the overall styling of the new hatchback.

The new Swift hatchback shares many of its parts with the Baleno hatchback however if we talk about overall dimension then the new hatchback is actually slightly shorter than the Baleno but has a longer wheelbase. The car is also lighter than the previous generation hatchback the lightest Swift hatchback only weighs 890 kilograms thanks to the new platform. This will definitely be useful and will help improve its overall performance.

Maruti Suzuki Swift Cabin

Step inside the Swift, and you’d notice the interiors have received a major overhaul. There’s practically nothing that looks similar to the older generation, which we think is a big plus right off the bat. Most importantly, levels of quality have also gone up a notch. Yes, it isn’t in the league of the Hyundai Grand i10, but it does get pretty close.To aid the ‘sporty’ positioning, there’s no trace of a light colour in the cabin. Everything from the dashboard to the upholstery is engulfed in black. To break the monotony, Maruti has cleverly used matte silver accents around the centre-console, the door pads, and the steering. While the all-black theme does look good, it robs the cabin of its sense of space. The dull grey headliner and the black upholstery makes the cabin feel claustrophobic. This is especially prominent in the rear, where the small window amplify the feeling.

The front seats are among the best in the business, and can be adjusted for height, reach and tilt. They have the right amount of cushioning on the side, and there’s ample lower back and underthigh support as well. The steering, sadly, only adjusts for tilt – there’s no reach adjust on offer. That said, the steering is placed at a neutral distance from the dash and you’d rarely have a problem. It is just the right size, and feels nice to hold. In the top-spec variants, it also gets controls for the audio and the calls. Behind the steering lies the updated instrument cluster. It does look nice, and we especially like the silver outline it gets for the speedometer and the tachometer pods. There’s a monochrome MID sandwiched between the two, that reads out information such as the trip efficiency, time and distance to empty over and above the standard trip and odometer.

It scores very high in terms of ergonomics. The positioning of switches, the air-conditioning controls and even the cubby holes is right where you’d want them. The centre-console gets the waterfall theme kickstarted yet again, and houses a 2DIN audio system (with Bluetooth, USB and AUX inputs) and the automatic climate control interface. Air-conditioning works pretty efficiently, and cools the cabin down quickly. One will feel the lack of rear AC vents, though, especially since the all-black cabin doesn’t do much to keep in-cabin heat low.The Swift is a driver-oriented car, and there’s no denying the fact the driver’s seat is the seat to be in. This is made evident the moment you hop onto the rear bench. While Maruti claim an increase of 22mm in legroom, it still isn’t a comfortable place to be in – especially over long distances. The headroom isn’t all that great thanks to the sloping roofline, and the width barely manages to accommodate three abreast.Summing up, the Swift’s cabin is definitely a good place to be in. There’s a good blend of practicality and feel-good creature comforts to make it a rounded hatch for the city.

Maruti Suzuki Swift Performance

Maruti Suzuki has come under a lot of pressure as newer cars in the segment were boasting of more mileage, thus both the engines had to be re-tuned for improved efficiency. The 1.2-litre K-Series mill now produces 2.7 PS less power, thus is outputs 84.3 PS at 6000 RPM while the torque has increased by 1 Nm to 115 Nm at 4000 RPM. This has been achieved by increasing the compression ratio from 10.0:1 to 11.0:1, the vehicle now returns an ARAI mileage of 20.4 km/l against the old car’s 18.5 km/l. The petrol mill has good mid and top-end performance and loves the redline, the changes made to the powertrain aren’t very apparent when you drive the car as it still moves with the same punchiness as before.

Coming to the famous diesel engine of the Maruti Suzuki Swift, the 1.3-litre Fiat motor, it hasn’t been tuned, thus it generates the same 75 PS at 4000 RPM and 190 Nm at 2000 RPM as before. The company has made tweaks to the ECU while also reducing friction to improve the mileage which is now rated at a stellar 25.2 km/l (the old car was claimed to return 22.9 km/l). The oil burner is fun to drive on the open road but there is considerable low-end lag which makes it difficult to drive the vehicle in stop-go city conditions. But once the turbo spools in full flow, the mid-range punch is extremely satisfying, still not as good as the last generation Swift which gave a kick in the pants feel like no other. Both the petrol and diesel engines are married to a 5-speed manual gearbox and there is still no automatic on offer, not even on the petrol model. Want an automatic only, get the DZire or so is what Maruti feels.

Maruti Suzuki Swift Rideing

The Maruti Swift has excellent handling and really eggs you to push hard, if you love driving of course. Because among the sea of Swifts you see on the road, most buy it for the Maruti badge and not for having fun behind the wheel. There are no changes to the dynamics of the Swift, so it continues to offer fun handling, decent ride quality (nowhere close to the segment benchmark) and an excellent steering wheel which is light at low speeds but weighs up brilliantly at high speeds, being high on feel and feedback. Braking performance is decent but even the wide but poor quality tyres on the Z trims don’t offer enough grip for surefooted stopping or hard cornering. View offers on Maruti Cars from Maruti dealers in Hyderabad at Autozhop

Maruti Suzuki Swift Safety

Standard safety provisions across line-up include 3-point ELR front seat belts, rear seat belts, rear door child locks, front head restraint, dual horn, high mounted stop lamp, side door impact beams and iCats. Eminent safety equipment available exclusively on the top-spec variant are reverse parking sensor, new generation anti-lock-braking system with electronic brakeforce distribution, brake assist, airbags in front for driver and co-passenger. Of these features, ABS with EBD and brake assist is available exquisitely on the VDi trims while giving a miss to the petrol variants.

Electrically adjustable outside rear view mirrors are standard on mid and high end trims save for the base variant which gets manually adjustable ORVMs. Similarly, side turn indicators are missing in the base trim. Front windshield gets two-speed intermittent wipers. Cabin features sporty wraparound door trims highlighted by a hint of chrome. Other features like day and night inside rear view mirror, three-spoke steering wheel, high volume glove-box, parcel shelf, inside chrome door handles etc are stuffed in the cabin. The instrument panel features tachometer, reminder is provided for driver’s seat/light off/key-off and warning for door closure/low fuel. There is a multi-information display, digital clock and odometer among others

Maruti Suzuki Swift Price

Maruti Suzuki Swift Ex-Showroom Price in India ranges from 5,15,343/- (Swift LXI) to 8,29,262/- (Swift ZDI Plus). Get best offers for Maruti Suzuki Swift from Maruti Suzuki Dealers in India

Maruti Suzuki Swift verdict

The Maruti Swift 2016 is one of the best bets if you will be driving the car. If you are chauffeur-driven or have four people travelling in the car with good enough luggage, that is when you need to look for another option. Our personal pick is the Maruti Swift. The best variant to consider is the ZXi/ZDi depending if you need a petrol or a diesel Swift. Read in detail here to understand which one to buy, a petrol or a diesel one.

BMW X6 Facelift Review, Performance & First Drive

BMW X6 Overview

Infused with revisions, the generation BMW X6 SUV gets bigger bragging a relatively macho stance. Although, the wheelbase has been reduced minimally by 2 mm to 1,933 mm which means an insignificantly shorter cabin. Other than the metamorphosed size, X6 gets better styled exteriors and spruced up cabin. Available only in the xDrive40d grade, the M package is offered as standard fare. Cosmetic upgrades on the outside and inside make the SUV look changed for good.BMW has also inset some advanced gadgets inside for the purpose of occupants’ entertainment. Safety wise, this Beemer is a reliable one, courtesy the raft of safety equipments incorporated inside. Mechanical strength is derived from the athletic 3.0 litre, diesel powertrain which outputs healthy power and torque figures. Performance is yet another area to watch out for, the company claimed performance numbers for the SUV are impressive. BMW price in India is placed a little higher, which brings it along the lines of priciest SUVs on offer. Get details on city specific BMW X6 price and accessories on offer at the nearest BMW X6 dealer. For information on contact details of BMW car dealers in Mumbai

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BMW X6 Look

The external appearance of this second generation BMW X6 explains that it has retained the same body structure from its predecessor. However, it gets much bolder and aggressive in its design that certainly lures the auto enthusiasts. The front facade is fitted with a slightly pronounced kidney bean shaped grille, which is designed with vertical slats and thick chrome surround. This is complimented by the bold lines on the bonnet. The headlight cluster gets a bit sleek and is housed with LED headlights featuring high beam assistance. The bumpers have been redesigned to give a masculine look to the frontage. It has a nudge guard sort of arrangement featuring air inlets. It also has round shaped fog lamps along with chrome accents that renders it a premium appeal. From the side facet, it looks more like a crossover and a coupe. It gets all the styling aspects like a set of alloy wheels, body colored ORVMs including door handles and black B pillars. The rear end gives you a glimpse of a sedan, thanks to its boot lid. The tail light cluster is powered by LED brake lights and turn indicators that further adds to its elegance. The rear bumper is in body color, but it seems to be assembled with some sort of a ceramic look-alike material that connects both the exhaust pipes. Overall, this second generation X6 looks refreshing and it will certainly lure the automobile enthusiasts.

BMW X6 Space

Step inside and you are welcomed by a trademark BMW cabin. The dashboard has horizontally been split into three parts. The upper half is black leather wrapped, the lower half gets an off-white treatment and splitting the two are slats of piano black and wood. The interior and the door trims are also optionally available in American Oak, Fineline Stripe, Fineline Pure, or Poplar Grain fine-wood trim fine-wood trim. The off-white materials used in the cabin gives it an airy feel. The seats can be adjusted electronically making it easy to find the right driving position and comfort. There is a fair bit of space at the back too but due to the centre arm rest and the air con controls, seating three at the back won’t be the most comfortable affair. Surprisingly, despite the coupe roofline, the low seating means there is quite a bit of head room even at the back. For those planning to go on a long family vacation need not worry about boot space. With the seat back upright the 2015 X6 makes 580 litres of space. Moreover the rear seat can be folded down in a 40:20:40 split thereby expanding on storage space.

The 2015 X6 comes heavily loaded with features. From Head-Up Display, night vision with dynamic light spot, 360 degree camera to parking assist, the X6 has it all. In terms of safety, the X6 gets 6 airbags, ABS, EBD and all other abbreviations you can think of. It also gets Lane departure warning and pedestrian alert. For the passengers at the back there are two separate HD 9.2-inch monitors with separate DVD drives to view different films on. Talking about movies and sound, the 2015 BMW X6 also comes with a 16 speaker Bang and Olufsen high end surround sound system.The centre console gets a 10.25-inch screen below which is the dual zone climate control and the controls for the integrated Bang and Olufsen infotainment system. Aside from the media and navigation, the screen also displays vehicle information and settings too. All the buttons are soft touch and well within reach. And then there is the automatic tailgate operation. If you hands are full after a shopping spree, a quick wave of the foot under the rear bumper opens up the tailgate.

BMW X6 Performance

Under the hood sits BMW’s most recent gem — a smooth, free-revving diesel six with not one, not two, but three turbos! The M50d’s 3.0-litre, triple-turbo straight-six produces 381bhp and commercial vehicle-like torque of 75.45kgm. All this is achieved because BMW has reduced the compression ratio of this diesel to just 16:1, really low considering few petrols nowadays come with a 12:1 ratio. The lower compression allows for greater ‘fill’ from the three turbos at maximum boost, and BMW has made sure injection pressure is good enough to supply plenty of diesel. The M50d’s injection pressure is upped to a really high 2,200bar when the engine is running at max speed.

How do the three turbos work together? To begin with, a small variable-geometry turbo comes in at low revs. This allows for fast responses and a reduction in lag as the light turbo is easy to spool up even with a small tap on the throttle. There is a hint of lag as you take off, but the quick eight-speed gearbox ratios help you overcome this in a jiffy. The larger main turbo joins the fray at just 1,500rpm, and takes responsibility for most of the meaty midrange. So, after 2,000rpm, responses are massive and explosive bursts of acceleration are just a flex of your right foot away. The third turbo is small again and chimes in at approximately 2,600rpm, helping give the mid range a boost. The best bit is that the turbos overlap so smoothly, you really need to pay attention to notice where each comes in, especially if you accelerate flat out in one long seamless pull all the way to 5,600rpm.

As a result, the X6 M50d is really quick. This 2.2-tonne SUV does 0-100 in an insane 5.3 seconds, and that’s just the start of it. And the manic pull in the higher gears simply has to be experienced. The motor delivers huge thrust from 2,000rpm to 5,000rpm, and the manner in which it progresses up the powerband is so undiesel-like, you almost forget it is one. Yes, it growls like a diesel in the midrange under load and there’s a hint of clatter too, but there’s also a nice snarl in the top end that sounds just great. At speed, the X6’s most remarkable feature is its near-petrol-like hush.

BMW X6 Driving

Hit the road in the 2017 BMW X6 and the first thing you’ll notice is the authoritative acceleration provided by the 35i’s 300-horsepower six-cylinder engine. This engine also feels refined throughout its rev range and is nicely complemented by the smooth-shifting eight-speed automatic transmission.If it’s more thrust you’re after, the xDrive50i model’s 445-hp V8 should prove sufficiently satisfying, although it comes at a hefty price premium. This engine provides all the performance most people could ever want, along with an exhilarating exhaust note when pushed hard. Best of all, its prodigious power output is balanced with a level of refinement that the hyperactive high-performance BMW X6 M sorely lacks.

The X6’s standard suspension produces an unruffled ride quality even over bad pavement. Dialing up the Comfort mode with the adjustable suspension produces a similar result. Switching the adjustable suspension to the firmer Sport mode improves handling thanks to firmer body control, though there’s no escaping the fact that this is a large, heavy vehicle with a higher center of gravity than your average sport sedan. The steering feels precise but doesn’t offer as much feedback as in competitors such as the Porsche Cayenne.

BMW X6 Safety

The 2017 X6 comes heavily loaded with features. From Head-Up Display, night vision with dynamic light spot, 360 degree camera to parking assist, the X6 has it all. In terms of safety, the X6 gets 6 airbags, ABS, EBD and all other abbreviations you can think of. It also gets Lane departure warning and pedestrian alert. For the passengers at the back there are two separate HD 9.2-inch monitors with separate DVD drives to view different films on. Talking about movies and sound, the 2015 BMW X6 also comes with a 16 speaker Bang and Olufsen high end surround sound system.The centre console gets a 10.25-inch screen below which is the dual zone climate control and the controls for the integrated Bang and Olufsen infotainment system. Aside from the media and navigation, the screen also displays vehicle information and settings too. All the buttons are soft touch and well within reach. And then there is the automatic tailgate operation. If you hands are full after a shopping spree, a quick wave of the foot under the rear bumper opens up the tailgate.

BMW X6 Cost in Hyderabad

Bmw X6 Ex-Showroom Price in Hyderabad ranges from 94,15,000/- (X6 xDrive 35i M Sport) to 1,82,40,000/- (X6 M STD). Get best offers for Bmw X6 from Bmw Dealers in Hyderabad. Check for BMW X6 price in Hyderabad at Carzprice

BMW X6 Bottomline

The BMW X6 might loose out on headroom and boot space against the X5, but it offers an unparalleled level of desirability. While it sure is expensive, it’s a very different and unique body style which is attracting many people to the vehicle. The X6 has carved out such a niche that others are now following with their own offerings (Mercedes and Audi). If you want an SUV which drives well, performs brilliantly and looks out of this world, then the BMW X6 is your only choice today.

Renault Kwid Facelift Review & Test Drive

Renault Kwid Overview

The Renault Kwid has redefined the entry level car segment altogether. The Renault Kwid 2017 is one of the few cars to take on the Maruti Alto 800 and provide some stiff competition to it. The Kwid is not compromised as much as others in the segment. The Kwid comes with SUV looks, spacious interiors, it is feature loaded and has a big boot. We share our detailed review of the Renault Kwid. For information on contact details of Renault car dealers in Gurgaon

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Renault Kwid Look

There are only two changes on the 1.0-litre Renault Kwid to differentiate it from the 800cc model. The French carmaker has added sporty body graphics on the doors having 1.0-litre stickers and there are a lot better looking full-size ORVMs finished in brushed silver. There is no badging on the tailgate or the front fenders. Apart from these minor changes, the Kwid looks exactly the same. The SUV proportions and high stance is the USP of the Kwid which really makes it stand out of the competition when it comes to styling.

Renault Kwid Space

One step into the Kwid and you already know you are getting into a fairly spacious hatchback by segment standards. The chunky steering wheel is neatly shaped and the Kwid comes with a digital instrument cluster, which is a first for its class. It comes with a elaborate trip computer and fuel economy reading which should help budget car buyers alter their driving style to eke out more efficiency.

The quality of plastics for a car of its price is quite good except for places like the door handles and aircon controls but overall the Kwid doesn’t look like it’s built cheap. There are plenty of storage spaces in the Kwid – two glove boxes, the top one with a bottle holder, two bottle holders in the front door pockets and plenty of scooped up places in the dashboard and in front of the gear lever. The seats are of the foamy, cushiony kind, and well contoured for the front passengers. The headrest is integrated and there’s decent under thigh support. It’s a spacious entry level hatchback, and in terms of boot space, it’s better than a few cars above the segment as well. At 300 litres, you can carry a big suitcase and an overnighter comfortably.

The Kwid has the longest wheelbase in its class at 2423mm, about 60mm more than the Alto and 40mm more than the Eon. It is also much wider than its closest competition and so you get more legroom and shoulder room. The Kwid’s packaging is seriously impressive.

Renault Kwid Gearbox

The 1.0-litre Renault Kwid produces 67 BHP at 5500 RPM and 91 Nm at 4250 RPM. This basically means 14 BHP and 19 Nm more at lower RPMs when compared to the 800cc engine. The added capacity and retuned engine offers strong low end and mid-range punch. The 3-cylinder engine doesn’t feel strained now and easily picks up the pace without letting you put effort. In-gear acceleration is better now and you don’t need to shift more frequently while driving in city traffic. The 5-speed transmission still feels a bit sluggish to use but has well defined gates.

100 km/hr comes up quickly if you upshift a tad before the redline since it doesn’t feel too responsive at the higher end of the rev band. Renault has worked on the NVH levels, which makes it less noisy and it feels more refined now. The more powerful Kwid now feels at home on the highways since you can cruise around 100 km/hr with ease at lower RPMs. The claimed fuel efficiency has gone down a bit to 23.01 km/l since there is a bigger engine under the hood.

Renault Kwid Rideing

It is a Renault at the end of the day and this is felt with the way the Kwid handles. There is a slight roll felt around corners at high speeds but the entire setup does a great job of maintaining its straight stance. Renault rightly claims that the Kwid mimics the Duster by offering similar level of driving dynamics, which has to be its salient feature. To make sure there isn’t much of drama when it comes to bringing the vehicle to a complete halt, it gets disc brakes in front and drum on the rear. Since there is no ABS offered for now, the tiny rubbers screech to glory during abrupt braking. We wish the brakes to be tad more effective. Overall, it leaves an amazing impression and is undoubtedly the best city car to drive in its segment.

Renault Kwid Cost in Hyderabad

Renault Kwid Ex-Showroom Price in Hyderabad ranges from 2,68,463/- (Kwid STD) to 4,66,299/- (Kwid RXT 1.0 O Superhero Edition AMT). Get best offers for Renault Kwid from Renault Dealers in Hyderabad. Check for Kwid price in Hyderabad at Carzprice

Renault Kwid Conclusion

If it is your first car, and you haven’t experienced a torque converter or dual clutch automatic before, the Kwid AMT will prove both easy to drive and agreeable to own. The gearshifts aren’t jerky, the throttle is linear and responsive, and thanks to the 1-litre engine, it is also energetic to drive in the city. We haven’t tested it for fuel economy yet, but we expect it to return efficiency figures matching the manual Kwid 1.0. What’s more, it carries over the highlights of the Kwid: a light steering, a plush low speed ride and clear visibility.

JavaScript Start-up Performance

As web developers, we know how easy it is to end up with web page bloat. But loading a webpage is much more than shipping bytes down the wire. Once the browser has downloaded our page’s scripts it then has to parse, interpret & run them. In this post, we’ll dive into this phase for JavaScript, why it might be slowing down your app’s start-up & how you can fix it.

Historically, we just haven’t spent a lot of time optimizing for the JavaScript Parse/Compile step. We almost expect scripts to be immediately parsed and executed as soon as the parser hits a <script> tag. But this isn’t quite the case. Here’s a simplified breakdown of how V8 works:

A simplified view of how V8 works. This is our idealized pipeline that we’re working towards.

Let’s focus on some of the main phases.

What slows our web apps from booting up?

Parsing, Compiling and Executing scripts are things a JavaScript engine spends significant time in during start-up. This matters as if it takes a while, it can delay how soon users can interact with our site. Imagine if they can see a button but not click or touch it for multiple seconds. This can degrade the user experience.

Parse & Compile times for a popular website using V8’s Runtime Call Stats in Chrome Canary. Notice how a slow Parse/Compile on desktop can take far longer on average mobile phones.

Start-up times matter for performance-sensitive code. In fact, V8 – Chrome’s JavaScript engine, spends a large amount of time parsing and compiling scripts on top sites like Facebook, Wikipedia and Reddit:

The pink area (JavaScript) represents time spent in V8 and Blink’s C++, while the orange and yellow represent parse and compile.

Parse and Compile have also been highlighted as a bottleneck by a number of large sites & frameworks you may be using. Below are tweets from Facebook’s Sebastian Markbage and Google’s Rob Wormald:

Sam Saccone calls out the cost of JS parse in ‘Planning for Performance’

As we move to an increasingly mobile world, it’s important that we understand the time spent in Parse/Compile can often be 2–5x as long on phones as on desktop. Higher-end phones (e.g the iPhone or Pixel) will perform very differently to a Moto G4. This highlights the importance of us testing on representative hardware (not just high-end!) so our users’ experiences don’t suffer.

Parse times for a 1MB bundle of JavaScript across desktop & mobile devices of differing classes. Notice how close a high-end phone like an iPhone 7 is to perf on a Macbook Pro vs the performance as we go down the graph towards average mobile hardware.

If we’re shipping huge bundles for our app, this is where endorsing modern bundling techniques like code-splitting, tree-shaking and Service Worker caching can really make a huge difference. That said, even a small bundle, written poorly or with poor library choices can result in the main thread being pegged for a long time in compilation or function call times. It’s important to holistically measure and understand where our real bottlenecks are.

What Are JavaScript Parse & Compile bottlenecks for the average website?

“Buuuut, I’m not Facebook”, I hear you say dear, reader. “How heavy are Parse & Compile times for average sites out in the wild?”, you might be asking. Let’s science this out!

I spent two months digging into the performance of a large set of production sites (6000+) built with different libraries and frameworks — like React, Angular, Ember and Vue. Most of the tests were recently redone on WebPageTest so you can easily redo them yourself or dig into the numbers if you wish. Here are some insights. For Website development services check Vivid Designs

Apps became interactive in 8 seconds on desktop (using cable) and 16 seconds on mobile (Moto G4 over 3G)

What contributed to this? Most apps spent an average of 4 seconds in start-up (Parse/Compile/Exec)..on desktop.

On mobile, parse times were up to 36% higher than they were on desktop.

Was everyone shipping huge JS bundles? Not as large as I had guessed, but there’s room for improvement. At the median, developers shipped 410KB of gzipped JS for their pages. This is in line with the 420KB over ‘average JS per page’ reported by the HTTPArchive. The worst offenders were sending anywhere up to 10MB of script down the wire. Oof.

HTTPArchive stat: the average page ships down 420KB of JavaScript

Script size is important, but it isn’t everything. Parse and Compile times don’t necessarily increase linearly when the script size increases. Smaller JavaScript bundles generally do result in a faster load time (regardless of our browser, device & network connection) but 200KB of our JS !== 200KB of someone else’s and can have wildly different parse and compile numbers.

Measuring JavaScript Parse & Compile today

Chrome DevTools

Timeline (Performance panel) > Bottom-Up/Call Tree/Event Log will let us drill into the amount of time spent in Parse/Compile. For a more complete picture (like the time spent in Parsing, Preparsing or Lazy Compiling), we can turn on V8’s Runtime Call Stats. In Canary, this will be in Experiments > V8 Runtime Call Stats on Timeline.

Chrome Tracing

about:tracing — Chrome’s lower-level Tracing tool allows us to use the `disabled-by-default-v8.runtime_stats` category to get deeper insights into where V8 spends its time. V8 have a step-by-step guide on how to use this that was published just the other day.

WebPageTest

WebPageTest’s “Processing Breakdown” page includes insights into V8 Compile, EvaluateScript and FunctionCall time when we do a trace with the Chrome > Capture Dev Tools Timeline enabled.

We can now also get out the Runtime Call Stats by specifying `disabled-by-default-v8.runtime_stats` as a custom Trace category (Pat Meenan of WPT now does this by default!).

For a guide on how to get the most out of this, see this gist I wrote up.

User Timing

It’s possible to measure Parse times through the User Timing API as Nolan Lawson points out below:

The third <script> here isn’t important, but it’s the first <script> being separate from the second (performance.mark() starting before the <script> has been reached) that is.

This approach can be affected on subsequent reloads by V8’s preparser. This could be worked around by appending a random string to the end of the script, something Nolan does in his optimize-js benchmarks.

I use a similar approach for measuring the impact of JavaScript Parse times using Google Analytics:

A custom Google Analytics dimension for ‘parse’ allows me to measure JavaScript parse times from real users and devices hitting my pages in the wild.

DeviceTiming

Etsy’s DeviceTiming tool can help measure parse & execution times for scripts in a controlled environment. It works by wrapping local scripts with instrumentation code so that each time our pages are hit from different devices (e.g laptops, phones, tablets) we can locally compare parse/exec. Daniel Espeset’s Benchmarking JS Parsing and Execution on Mobile Devicesgoes into more detail on this tool.

What can we do to lower our JavaScript parse times today?

  • Ship less JavaScript. The less script that requires parsing, the lower our overall time spent in the parse & compile phases will be.
  • Use code-splitting to only ship the code a user needs for a route and lazy load the rest. This probably is going to help the most to avoid parsing too much JS. Patterns like PRPL encourage this type of route-based chunking, now used by Flipkart, Housing.com and Twitter.
  • Script streaming: In the past, V8 have told developers to use `async/defer` to opt into script streaming for parse-time improvements of between 10–20%. This allows the HTML parser to at least detect the resource early, push the work to the script streaming thread and not halt the document parsing. Now that this is done for parser-blocking scripts too, I don’t think there’s anything actionable we need to do here. V8 recommend loading larger bundles earlier on as there’s only one streamer thread (more on this later)
  • Measure the parse cost of our dependencies, such as libraries and frameworks. Where possible, switch them out for dependencies with faster parse times (e.g switch React for Preact or Inferno, which require fewer bytes to bootup and have smaller parse/compile times). Paul Lewis covered framework bootup costs in a recent article. As Sebastian Markbage has also noted, a good way to measure start-up costs for frameworks is to first render a view, delete and then render again as this can tell you how it scales. The first render tends to warm up a bunch of lazily compiled code, which a larger tree can benefit from when it scales.

If our JavaScript framework of choice supports an ahead-of-time compilation mode (AoT), this can also help heavily reduce the time spent in parse/compile. Angular apps benefit from this for example: Top web development company in Hyderabad visit Vivid Designs 

Nolan Lawson’s ‘Solving the Web Performance Crisis’

What are browsers doing to improve Parse & Compile times today?

Developers are not the only ones to still be catching up on real-world start-up times being an area for improvement. V8 discovered that Octane, one of our more historical benchmarks, was a poor proxy for real-world performance on the 25 popular sites we usually test. Octane can be a poor proxy for 1) JavaScript frameworks (typically code that isn’t mono/polymorphic) and 2) real-page app startup (where most code is cold). These two use-cases are pretty important for the web. That said, Octane isn’t unreasonable for all kinds of workloads.

The V8 team has been hard at work improving start-up time and we’ve already seem some wins here:

We also estimate a 25% improve on V8 parse times for many pages looking at our Octane-Codeload numbers:

And we’re seeing wins in this area for Pinterest too. There are a number of other explorations V8 has started over the last few years to improve Parsing and Compile times.

Code caching

From using V8’s code caching

Chrome 42 introduced code caching — a way to store a local copy of compiled code so that when users returned to the page, steps like script fetching, parsing and compilation could all be skipped. At the time we noted that this change allowed Chrome to avoid about 40% of compilation time on future visits, but I want to provide a little more insight into this feature:

  • Code caching triggers for scripts that are executed twice in 72 hours.
  • For scripts of Service Worker: Code caching triggers for scripts that are executed twice in 72 hours.
  • For scripts stored in Cache Storage via Service Worker: Code caching triggers for scripts in the first execution.

So, yes. If our code is subject to caching V8 will skip parsing and compiling on the third load.

We can play around with these in chrome://flags/#v8-cache-strategies-for-cache-storage to look at the difference. We can also run Chrome with — js-flags=profile-deserialization to see if items are being loaded from the code cache (these are presented as deserialization events in the log).

One caveat with code caching is that it only caches what’s being eagerly compiled. This is generally only the top-level code that’s run once to setup global values. Function definitions are usually lazily compiled and aren’t always cached. IIFEs (for users of optimize-js ;)) are also included in the V8 code cache as they are also eagerly compiled.

Script Streaming

Script streaming allows async or defer scripts to be parsed on a separate background thread once downloading begins and improves page loading times by up to 10%. As noted earlier, this now also works for sync scripts.

Since the feature was first introduced, V8 have switched over to allowing all scriptseven parser blocking <script src=””> to be parsed on a background thread so everyone should be seeing some wins here. The only caveat is that there’s only one streaming background thread and so it makes sense to put our large/critical scripts in here first. It’s important to measure for any potential wins here.

Practically, <script defer> in the <head> so we can discover the resource early and then parse it on the background thread.

It’s also possible to check with DevTools Timeline whether the correct scripts get streamed — if there’s one big script that dominates the parse time, it would make sense to make sure it’s (usually) picked up by the streaming.

Better Parsing & Compiling

Work is ongoing for a slimmer and faster Parser that frees up memory and is more efficient with data structures. Today, the largest cause of main thread jank for V8 is the nonlinear parsing cost. Take a snippet of UMD:

(function (global, module) { … })(this, function module() { my functions })

V8 won’t know that module is definitely needed so we won’t compile it when the main script gets compiled. When we decide to compile module, we need to reparse all of the inner functions. This is what makes V8’s parse-times non-linear. Every function at n-th depth is parsed n times and causes jank.

V8 are already working on collecting info about inner functions during the initial compile, so any future compilations can ignore their inner functions. For module-style functions, this should result in a large perf improvement.

See ‘The V8 Parser(s) — Design, Challenges, and Parsing JavaScript Better’ for the full story.

V8 are also exploring offloading parts of JavaScript compilation to the background during startup.

Precompiling JavaScript?

Every few years, it’s proposed engines offer a way to precompile scripts so we don’t waste time parsing or compiling code pops up. The idea is if instead, a build-time or server-side tool can just generate bytecode, we’d see a large win on start-up time. My opinion is shipping bytecode can increase your load-time (it’s larger) and you would likely need to sign the code and process it for security. V8’s position is for now we think exploring avoiding reparsing internally will help see a decent enough boost that precompilation may not offer too much more, but are always open to discussing ideas that can lead to faster startup times. That said, V8 are exploring being more aggressive at compiling and code-caching scripts when you update a site in a Service Worker and we hope to see some wins with this work.

We discussed precompilation at BlinkOn 7 with Facebook and Akamai and my notes can be found here.

The Optimize JS lazy-parsing parens ‘hack’

JavaScript engines like V8 have a lazy parsing heuristic where they pre-parse most of the functions in our scripts before doing a complete round of parsing (e.g to check for syntax errors). This is based on the idea that most pages have JS functions that are lazily executed if at all.

Pre-parsing can speed up startup times by only checking the minimal a browser needs to know about functions. This breaks down with IIFEs. Although engines try to skip pre-parsing for them, the heuristics aren’t always reliable and this is where tools like optimize-js can be useful.

optimize-js parses our scripts in advance, inserts parenthesis where it knows (or assumes via heuristics) functions will be immediately executed enabling faster execution. Some of the paren-hacked functions are sure bets (e.g IIFEs with !). Others are based on heuristics (e.g in a Browserify or Webpack bundle it’s assumed all modules are eagerly loaded which isn’t necessarily the case). Eventually, V8 hopes for such hacks to not be required but for now this is an optimization we can consider if we know what you’re doing.

V8 are also working on reducing the cost for cases where we guess wrong, and that should also reduce the need for the parens hack

Conclusions

Start-up performance matters. A combination of slow parse, compile and execution times can be a real bottleneck for pages that wish to boot-up quickly. Measure how long your pages spend in this phase. Discover what you can do to make it faster.

We’ll keep working on improving V8 start-up performance from our end as much as we can. We promise 😉 Happy perfing!

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