Here Are The 8 Most Important SEO Factors

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Whether you are trying to learn more about SEO or want actual ranking techniques on how to improve your website’s SEO, there is a set of on-site and off-site factors that Google and other search engines favor when ranking every site.

Even though there are more than 200 factors that affect your site rank, the good news is that anyone can improve their website by simply working on a handful of them.

Here are the 8 most important SEO factors:

1. Domain Authority

Domain Authority (DA) is a metric that shows how much trust your domain has built over time by a matter of backlinks and age.Similarly, the older your domain, the higher its domain authority. For Digital Marketing Companies Check Vivid Digital  

Another important factor that I’ve found is the relevance of the domain name in respect to the main keywords you are targeting. For instance, seoexpert.com will be more likely to rank better than lucysblog.com for “seo” related queries.

Lastly, a few of my SEO expert friends have reported that shorter domains will generally outperform longer domains.

2. Keywords

SEO begins with picking the right keywords (which you can very well find using Google’s Keyword Planner or Ahrefs).

My strategy with a brand new blog is to start by picking medium to low competition keywords and then slowly build up my post to target more competitive terms.

If you are looking to rank then you should definitely include LSI keywords (keywords that are synonyms to your target terms).

For instance, a site that talks about “portable chargers” can also include terms such as “power banks”, “portable batteries for phones” and so forth. Make sure to include the keywords that you want to rank for in the title and in the sub-headings for perfect on-page optimization.

3. Relevancy and Context

Search engines are smarter than ever before.

They do know the difference between a relevant page and a copied one.

They can also distinguish whether just site is about oranges or protein bars. I recommend sticking to a niche when building out a site and catering content specific to that particular niche.

For me, my niche is online marketing and SEO.

4. Number of Inbound and Outbound links

The more relevant links your website is pointing to, the greater your SEO score.

Same goes for inbound links which are actually more favored, especially if they are coming from prestigious, relevant and popular sources.

You can get backlinks by getting yourself featured on big news sites for example.

5. Site Speed

Google really cares about how quickly your site loads. To speed up your site you can use caching plugins such as W3 Total Cache or use a CDN to deliver your content in a faster way. For SEO Services in London visit here

6. Clean and responsive design

Nowadays, the best optimized websites are the ones that are clean, functional and responsive to devices of all types and sizes. In fact, Google even favors websites that have mobile-friendly design than ones that don’t have.

If you are using WordPress, you can install the AMP plugin to have your site load blazingly fast. If your site is not using WordPress, you should learn how to make use of the accelerated mobile pages project by Google.

7. URL structure

The easier your url, the better it is for humans and search engines to understand what your post is all about.

Here are two examples:

a) Vividdigital.com/blog/what-is-seo/

b) vividdigital.com/blog/archives/12/17/2018/seo/?p=23

Clearly example A is better because it’s descriptive and to the point.

Several studies have confirmed that the shorter the url, the better. Nevertheless, you still want to make sure you are including your top keyword in the slug for an added SEO juice.

8. Length of your content

Whenever you are writing a blog post that you want to rank, you want to make sure you are going into as much detail as possible. Search Engines have been rewarding long-form content and in 2018, you won’t rank unless you write at least 1500-2000 words per post.

When you write long form content, you give yourself the chance to explore a topic in depth, which in turns increases the time that some visitor spends on your site and signals Google that your content is awesome.

Educational Evaluation

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Educational evaluation is the evaluation process of characterizing and appraising some aspect/s of an educational procedure.

Common purposes in educational evaluation:

A. Educational institutions usually need evaluation data to demonstrate effectiveness to funders and other stakeholders, and to provide a measure of performance for marketing purposes.

B. Educational evaluation is also a professional activity that individual educators need to undertake if they plan to continuously review and enhance the learning they are endeavoring to facilitate.

Standards for Educational Evaluation

The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation published three sets of standards for educational evaluations.

A. The Personnel Evaluation Standards, published in 1988

B. The Program Evaluation Standards (2nd edition), published in 1994

C. The Student Evaluations Standards, published in 2003.

Each publication demonstrates and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

1.The Personnel Evaluation Standards

The propriety standards ask that evaluations be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of evaluatees and clients involved.

The utility standards are designed to guide evaluations so that they will be informative, timely, and influential.

The feasibility standards call for evaluation systems that are as easy to implement as possible, efficient in their use of time and resources, sufficiently funded, and viable from a number of other standpoints.

The accuracy standards require that the obtained information be technically accurate and that conclusions be linked logically to the data.

2. The Program Evaluation Standards

The utility standards are intended to make sure that an evaluation will serve the information needs of intended users.

The feasibility standards are planned to ensure that an evaluation will be realistic, prudent, diplomatic, and frugal.

The propriety standards are intended to make sure that an evaluation will be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of those involved in the evaluation, as well as those affected by its results.

The accuracy standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will disclose and convey technically adequate information about the features that determine worth or merit of the program being evaluated.

3. The Student Evaluation Standards

The Propriety standards assist to make sure that student evaluations are conducted lawfully, ethically, and with regard to the rights of students and other persons affected by student evaluation. For Educational Evaluations in US visit here

The Utility standards encourage the design and implementation of informative, timely, and useful student evaluations.

The Feasibility standards help ensure that student evaluations are practical; viable; cost-effective; and culturally, socially, and politically appropriate.

The Accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will give sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.

The Virtual Phone Systems Have Many Sophisticated Features For Business

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Regardless of the nature, size and scope of business you are in, having a Virtual phone system can help you effectively meet your business communication needs and also help promote direct sales.For running a successful business, telephone communications should be optimized in such a way that customers are never asked to wait for lengthy amounts of time, or the calls transferred several times, before reaching their intended recipients.The first obvious step in successful marketing is to have a way for customers to reach you. Availing a Virtual phone system will entail just three simple steps

Setting up new branch offices and appointing new staffs to operate the business in a preferred location may not sound economical to small business entrepreneurs. Creating virtual offices is the ideal option in such a circumstance. You can stay in touch with your customers located cities apart at low cost with the aid of virtual office phone systems. These systems enable entrepreneurs to manage their offices from anywhere – even a car, home or hotel room – thus giving a high degree of physical independence. Check for Virtual Phone Systems Have Many Sophisticated Features For Your Business in Linkedphone

State-of-the-art Phone Features

Virtual office phone systems are best suited for small businesses and medium businesses as they enable them to project a big business image. These phone systems are implemented through dedicated connections. Virtual PBX systems have many sophisticated features that are not found even in the latest business phone systems. The features include virtual receptionist, auto attendant, find me follow me call forwarding, call transfer, voicemail, fax mail and so on. The auto attendant system presents a menu of options such as dial by name directory, dial by extension, zero out to operator and group dialing to the callers. The sophisticated interface presented to the callers can make your business appear a flourishing one. You can even customize the auto attendant to greet the callers with their own professional greeting messages. One can receive local and toll free numbers for the desired locations from the virtual PBX service providers. The calls can be routed to the appropriate person’s mobile number or residence phone number, whatever has been provided in the phone number list, irrespective of the person’s present location. If nobody is there to attend the call, the callers will be diverted to a voicemail system, where they can leave their messages. Customers can receive their faxes in their email account using the fax mail.

Handy Phone System

Traditional Virtual PBX systems are expensive and require heavy equipments to be installed at the company premises. That is not the case with virtual office phone systems. These do not require any hardware or software to be installed at the user’s site. All the equipments are maintained at the service provider’s site itself. Moreover, these systems are scalable to a large extent; users need not worry about the additional equipments and phone lines needed while expanding their business, since all these are maintained at the provider’s location itself.

The Evolution Of Education Programs

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Today, high education programs are beginning to fade as more and more students opt for the flexibility, accessibility, and career-skills focus of online and continuing education.

Changing student profile

A signal of this can be seen in the changing student profile. Whereas in the past, the bulk of students who made-up higher education programs were in the 18 to 24-year-old range, today that demographic has broadened.

“The couple of times that we’ve done demographic study work, we determined that the average age of a student at a career college is the late-twenties; although there are students who are eighteen coming straight out of high school, and there are people in their fifties and sixties. It’s a wide range,” says Paul Kitchin, Executive Director of Career Colleges Ontario.

Career-building skills

A number of factors are driving the soaring admission rates at colleges and universities that offer online and continuing education programs, however one of the biggest draws is the focus on real-life job skills.

“It’s about giving students the full set of skills they need to enter into a career. You’re going to get the practical, hands-on skills you need to be able to function on the job,” says Kitchin.In today’s competitive job market, extra certificates, credentials, and skills are a big factor in what separates successful and unsuccessful job candidates. For Educational Evaluations in US visit here

Flexibility and accessibility

Another huge draw is flexibility and accessibility. Many continuing education programs allow students to attend school partially or entirely online. Because of this, people from all over Canada have the same opportunities for enrichment. As long as you have an internet connection you can be in school working towards a degree or certificate.

“If someone lives in rural Ontario or is a single parent, the benefits of e-learning are huge. So there’s some leveling of the playing field in terms of education if people can get their education online or part of it online,” says Dr. Lorraine Carter, President of the Canadian Association for University Continuing Education.

The future of online learning

What’s more is online courses have proven to be an effective learning environment, especially in comparison with large lecture-style courses.And with advancements in communication technology, online education may one day be able to replicate even the most technical of school work, including labs and workshops.

“There are big possibilities around simulations and 3D virtual environments. And I think that’s only going to continue to grow. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine’s utilization of very high end simulations and learning objects is evidence that you can do it” says Carter.

Top Advantages Of Using Virtual Number For Your Business

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A virtual phone system lets you separate your personal and professional calls, but still gives you the flexibility and cost savings of operating your home business using your cell phone if you want. While there are plenty of virtual phone systems out there advertising themselves as the ideal partnership for home-based businesses, there are five key features that will help you identify companies worth your hard-earned dollars. It can be dangerous to give out your phone number to people you don’t know, and that’s normally the case when a website asks you for your phone number. Fortunately, just like with anonymous email addresses and debit cards, you can also grab an anonymous, virtual phone number to mask your real number.When you use a virtual phone number, only that number is known, not your real number, even though the virtual number might ring your real phone to establish the phone call. Anyone you call, and anyone who calls your virtual number, cannot see your real phone number. Check for Advantages Of Using Virtual Number For Your Business in Linkedphone

Here is a list of the best virtual and anonymous phone services that are perfect for both business and personal use:

Linked Phone

Linked Phone is totally free and gives you access to a completely different phone number that you can use to make and receive calls and texts.Linked Phone works on a computer and via their mobile app. When someone calls your virtual number, it’s forwarded to whatever phone you want it forwarded to (you can even have calls forwarded to multiple numbers at once).Then, you can pick up the phone on any of your forwarded numbers that are ringing, and your caller won’t know your actual number. You can even prevent incoming calls from ringing your phones and just send all requests to voicemail.Making calls works similarly through the app or website.

Some other features include the regular ones like voicemail and call screening. More »

Virtual Phone

Virtual Phone is a service that offers both local and toll-free numbers in over 120 countries and includes features like call recording, SMS, call schedules, voicemail, fax, IVR, call forwarding, and more.Virtual Phone is really easy to set up compared to the other services in this list. The web dashboard is simple to use for managing your account, and the mobile app makes it easy to send texts and make phone calls wherever you may be.Virtual Phone also works as a web button so that you can put a special code on your website for your visitors to instantly call you using your virtual number.Virtual Phone is free for the first 100 minutes or text messages but does not renew and requires a purchase after the limits have been reached. There’s a pay-as-you-go plan and several others depending on how many texts and minutes you require. More »

Vumber

With Vumber, you can choose a virtual phone number from any area code, so you can choose a local one or one from a different area (or even a toll-free number), and it will all work the same.To receive calls, anyone can call your virtual number and it will ring your phone like a normal call. If you want to make a phone call with your anonymous number, just call your Vumber number from the phone you’ve registered as a forwarding number.When your phone rings, you can decide to take it, send it to voicemail, play a tone, put it on hold, and a few other options.Vumber is not free but it does offer a 14-day trial for any of its three plans. Each plan includes the same features as the others but with a different number of phone numbers, you can use plus a different number of minutes that the plan supports.You can check out their current prices when you choose your Vumber plan. Only US and Canadian numbers are supported by a forwarding number. More »

Tossable Digits

Tossable Digits is a paid service that gives out an anonymous number and features like call forwarding, rules, recording, caller ID control, and screening; voicemail; do not disturb; RoboCall blocking; etc.There are over half a million virtual numbers you can choose from in over 60 countries, including toll-free numbers.There are four plans you can choose from, each with a different number of virtual numbers you can use and a different number of minutes supported by the plan. The pay-as-you-go plan lets you choose how many virtual numbers and minutes are available as you need them.Each Tossable Digits plan supports unlimited SMS for US and Canadian numbers. More »

Talkroute

Choose a toll-free or local number with Talkroute to get a virtual phone service that you can use to mask your real phone number when making or receiving phone calls and texts.Much like some of these other virtual and anonymous phone number services in this list, Talkroute supports mobile devices with their free app.One important feature to note is that you can forward and route incoming calls to your virtual number to any other phone number or even a sequence of numbers in a calling line to make sure the caller can reach someone.There are also customized greetings, hold music, audio prompts, and similar features that make Talkroute perfect for business users.Talkroute gives you unlimited minutes when you buy one of their plans, plus limited or unlimited texts depending on the plan you choose. All of the plan features can be seen in the link below.There are three Talkroute plans you can choose from, with each plan progressively including more features. For example, the Basic plan is the least expensive and does not include caller ID, a call menu, scheduled forwarding, or live call transfers like the Pro plan supports. More »

eVoice

eVoice stands out as a virtual phone number service in that voicemail sent to the virtual number can be transcribed as text and emailed to you so that you don’t even have to listen to voicemails anymore.There’s also call routing, greetings, conference calling abilities, the option to buy a local or toll-free number, and access to the eVoice mobile app.eVoice has four plans you can choose from, with the least expensive offering 300 monthly minutes with two extensions and six virtual numbers, and the most expensive giving out 4,000 monthly minutes with 15 extensions and 45 numbers. More »

What Is Search Engine Optimization Content Management

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Now that you have published your articles, content management comes into play. When it comes to content management, an SEO is mostly concerned about the accessibility of the content.

Choose the Correct Redirects

There will be times when you need to move domains or pages. If you want to prevent an overdose of 404-errors in Webmaster Tools you should implement redirects.

The two major redirects are 302 and 301. Webmasters often use a 302 redirect to send traffic to a new URL. Unfortunately this is seen as a temporary redirect so it passes no link juice to the new page. This means that the new page starts with a clean link profile. That’s why it’s best to use a 301 redirect. This is a permanent redirect that passes most link juice to the redirected page. For SEO Agency in London visit Vivid SEO

Add Structured Data

To make our content more useful for search engines, we can add structured data. Structured data is information formatted in a universally understandable way. By tagging specific pieces of text, search engines can understand the underlying meaning of it.

You can use microdata, microformats or RFDa to implement structured data. This markup is used by search engines to display rich snippets (e.g a star-rating, thumbnail, video duration, etc.). This can improve the CTR of you pages.

Great Design isn’t Always Crawlable

Not all content is accessible for search engines. As the title says: a beautiful page isn’t necessarily a page that’s optimized for search engines. A designer wants a page that looks good, whilst the SEO wants a page that can easily be crawled. The challenge is to combine these two approaches.

Problems can arise when certain page elements, for example a call-to-action or a discount-banner, are implemented as images. This allows the designer to easily manipulate fonts, textures, gradients, etc. But as a result, important information in the call to action or banner can’t be crawled because it’s embedded in the image.

Thankfully this problem can be solved with a combination of HTML and CSS. By using code instead of an image, these elements are fully crawlable. Web fonts are also handy for creating a visually appealing website (so you don’t have to use images as a work around). Google has a large collection of open source web fonts that you can use free of charge.

Another technique is the mouse-over effect. This is a great way to add crawlable content to an image. The example below combines the visual preference of the designer (the images) with the crawlable content for the SEO (the excerpt via the mouse-over effect).

Create Social Media Marketing Goals That Solve Your Biggest Challenges

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The first step to any strategy is to understand what you want out of your efforts. Social media marketing isn’t about flipping a switch and calling it a day. Instead, social media planning should be looked at like cooking your favorite dish.Once you have your ingredients, you follow a recipe and presto! But that’s not always the case. What if you have guests and need to feed more people? What if someone is allergic to one of the ingredients? Suddenly, your goal goes from making a meal to ensuring it will feed enough people and be edible by all.

That’s why creating goals is so critical to the first part of your social media strategy. At the same time, it’s best to set goals that you know are attainable. Asking for 1 million new Instagram followers in 2018 is unrealistic. With achievable goals, you’re more likely to stick to the original plan and continue to take on new hurdles as you complete old ones.This is the same reason why brands should never take on every social media channel possible in their current marketing strategy. Try to choose the channels that have the most importance based on your brand’s goals. Avoid over complicating a strategy with too many targets and objectives. Simplicity can take you a long way. For SEO Agency in London visit Vivid SEO

And also, don’t forget to document your social media goals. Not only is it important to help you benchmark where you are, but it also improves your chances of achieving them. According to some statistics, people who write their goals down are 30 times more successful.

Social Media Goals to Consider in 2018

Goal setting is a staple of all marketing and business strategies. Social media is no exception. Of course, with a range of social capabilities, it can be difficult to determine exactly what your objectives should be. For guidance, here are some common social media goals to consider:

A. Increase brand awareness: To create authentic and lasting brand awareness, avoid a slew of promotional messages. Instead, focus on meaningful content and a strong brand personality through your social channels.

B. Higher quality of sales: Digging through your social channels is nearly impossible without monitoring or listening to specific keywords, phrases or hashtags. Through more efficient social media targeting, you reach your core audience much faster.

C. Drive in-person sales: Some retailers rely on social media marketing efforts to drive in-store sales. Is your brand promoting enough on social to reward those who come to you? What about alerting customers to what’s going on in your stores?

D. Improve ROI: There’s not a brand on social media that doesn’t want to increase its return on investment. But on social, this goal is specific to performing a thorough audit of your channels and ensuring cost of labor, advertisements and design stay on track. Digital Marketing Companies visit here

E. Create a loyal fanbase: Does your brand promote user-generated content? Do your followers react positively without any initiation? Getting to this point takes time and effort with creating a positive brand persona on social.

F. Better pulse on the industry: What are your competitors doing that seems to be working? What strategies are they using to drive engagement or sales? Having a pulse on the industry could simply help you improve your efforts and take some tips from those doing well.

Tougher Approval ; H1B Visa Extension Rule Changes

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The H1B non-immigrant work visa continues to attract the attention of the Trump administration, and even without any new legislation there is wave of new rules and regulations. The most recent targets the H1B visa ‘extension’ process, making it tougher for existing H1B visa workers to renew their visa. This has previously been an easy approval but now that is all changing.

The Facts

A. The H1B visa is valid for three years, once the petition is approved

B. The visa can be extended for an additional one to three years, and in some cases longer

C. The basis for extension since 2004 was nearly automatic, and the burden was on the USCIS to show a reason to deny an extension

D. As of October 22, 2017, that rule has been modified to place the burden on the petitioner for any extension

New Rule Mean

Previously, eligibility for an H1B extension was based on the original petition, and no re-application of supporting documents and qualifications was required. Now, the new rule requires USCIS officers to scrutinize applications for extensions just as they would an original petition. It is essentially the same as submitting a new petition. The justification is as always to “protect the interests of US workers”. Check for H1B Visa Evaluation in UT Evaluators

The result of this change means:

A. Longer lead times to submit extension applications, due to assembling paperwork and USCIS review

B. Existing H1B visa workers are no longer guaranteed an extension, and may be caught off guard or won’t have time to process the extension prior to expiration

C. Some workers in positions that no longer qualify for new H1B visas (entry level computer programmers) will have their extensions denied

D. HR departments at large tech firms employing many H1B workers will have to increase their workload to assemble the extension applications

The Purpose of This Rule Change Is

The unstated purpose seems to be to ‘weed out’ current H1B workers who would be rejected if they were submitting a new petition. This could include many workers that are currently employed by outsourcing firms, and contracted out to other companies. Many of those workers (and their employers) were probably assuming that they would escape the barrage of H1B administrative reforms, since their petition was already previously approved.

For example, an entry level computer programmer who was hired two years ago, is now facing the almost certain prospect that any extension application will be denied. It is unlikely that these workers were planning to return home, and has a very real impact on the outsourcing companies that employ them.

It is definitely a blow to firms like Infosys and Wipro who were probably not factoring in a new level of intense scrutiny for extensions, and thinking that they could rely on their existing pool of current H1B visa workers.

Just an Internal Memo Made This Rule Change

This rule change was implemented by a simple internal memorandum within USCIS. It does illustrate the effectiveness of working within current immigration laws, and making internal agency regulations more difficult to comply with. For H1B Visa Process Visit here

This approach is aligned with the Trump administration’s overall H1B visa strategy, to make as many administrative changes as possible to restrict access to the program, by unqualified or low wage workers. This saves the time and political capital of pushing new legislation forward, and can be done with the stroke of a pen.

The good news is that new H1B petitioners are on the same playing level as existing H1B workers, so there is no advantage if a foreign national is already working in the US. Please contact us for assistance in finding a sponsor and position in your specialty occupation.

H1B Visa Extensions not Under Threat, According to USCIS

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A spokesperson from the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has stated that extensions to the H1B visa program are not under threat, as was widely reported at the start of January.

“USCIS is not considering a regulatory change that would force H1B visa holders to leave the United States by changing our interpretation of section 104(c) of AC-21, which provides for H1B extensions beyond the 6 year limit,” said Jonathan Withington, Chief of Media Relations for USCIS.

The news has resulted in a collective sigh of relief among the community of technology professionals seeking extensions to their time in the country. However, Homeland Security has stated that it was still conducting a thorough review of worker visa programs. For H1B Visa Process Visit here

Officials have said that the policy change for H1B extensions was never planned at all, although some reports say the administration changed its mind in response to the swift and harsh reaction from the business community.The work visa program has long been a political hot potato in the United States, with some politicians repeatedly calling for it to be scrapped, arguing that it led to job losses for Americans.

Each year, the USCIS grants roughly 85,000 H1B visas, which are issued for up to six years. Once expired, visa holders that have applied for green cards routinely seek extensions under the American Competitiveness Act.

What Is Norm-Referenced And Criterion-Referenced Evaluation

Two alternative approaches to educational testing that must be thoroughly understood are norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing. Although there are similarities between these two approaches to testing, there are also fundamental differences between norm and criterion referenced testing.There have been disputations about the relative virtues of norm and criterion-referenced measurements for a long time. However, a fundamental fact is recognised by most of concerned people that norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing are complementary approaches. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators

(i) Criterion-Referenced Evaluation:

When the evaluation is concerned with the performance of the individual in terms of what he can do or the behaviour he can demonstrate, is termed as criterion- referenced evaluation. In this evaluation there is a reference to a criterion.But there is no reference to the performance of other individuals in the group. In it we refer an individual’s performance to a predetermined criterion which is well defined.

Examples:

(i) Raman got 93 marks in a test of Mathematics.

(ii) A typist types 60 words per minute.

(iii) Amit’s score in a reading test is 70.

A simple working definition of Criterion-Referenced Evaluation :

A criterion-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to a defined achievement domain.In the above examples there is no reference to the performance of other members of the group. Thus criterion-referenced evaluation determines an individual’s status with reference to well defined criterion behaviour.

It is an attempt to interpret test results in terms of clearly defined learning outcomes which serve as referents (criteria). Success of criterion-reference test lies in the delineation of all defined levels of achievement which are usually specified in terms of behaviourally stated instructional objectives.

The purpose of criterion-referenced evaluation/test is to assess the objectives. It is the objective based test. The objectives are assessed, in terms of behavioural changes among the students.Such type of test assesses the ability of the learner in relation to the criterion behaviour. Glasar (1963) first used this term, ‘Criterion-reference test’ to describe the learner’s achievement on a performance continuum.Hively and Millman (1974) suggested a new term, ‘domain-referenced test’ and to them the word ‘domain’ has a wider connotation. A criterion referenced test can measure one or more assessment domain.

(ii) Norm Referenced Evaluation:

Norm-referenced evaluation is the traditional class-based assignment of numerals to the attribute being measured. It means that the measurement act relates to some norm, group or a typical performance.It is an attempt to interpret the test results in terms of the performance of a certain group. This group is a norm group because it serves as a referent of norm for making judgements.

Test scores are neither interpreted in terms of an individual (self-referenced) nor in terms of a standard of performance or a pre-determined acceptable level of achievement called the criterion behaviour (criterion-referenced). The measurement is made in terms of a class or any other norm group.Almost all our classroom tests, public examinations and standardised tests are norm-referenced as they are interpreted in terms of a particular class and judgements are formed with reference to the class. Educational Evaluations in US visit here

Examples:

(i) Raman stood first in Mathematics test in his class.

(ii) The typist who types 60 words per minute stands above 90 percent of the typists who appeared the interview.

(iii) Amit surpasses 65% of students of his class in reading test.

A simple working definition Norm Referenced Evaluation :

A norm-referenced test is used to ascertain an individual’s status with respect to the performance of other individuals on that test.In the above examples, the person’s performance is compared to others of their group and the relative standing position of the person in his/her group is mentioned. We compare an individual’s performance with similar information about the performance of others.

That is why selection decisions always depend on norm- referenced judgements. A major requirement of norm-referenced judgements is that individuals being measured and individuals forming the group or norm, are alike. In norm-referenced tests very easy and very difficult items are discarded and items of medium difficulty are preferred because our aim is to study relative achievement.